GENDER in conflicts

A major psycho social cause of conflict is the repeated marginalization of particular persons or groups. As a host of people are excluded from the social, economic and political spheres, tension increases, and marginalization makes it easier for contending parties to cause individuals and groups to engage in extreme actions and mobilize others to act as perpetrators. The effects of marginalization differ for every individual and are linked to personal traits and environmental circumstances. Historically, those who have become rebel leaders felt victimized and humiliated during an earlier period of their lives. They may have experienced repression, human rights violations, deprivation of needed resources and/or alienation. Their aggression appears to be a form of retaliation deriving from past feelings of

indignity and degradation. A theory that closely examines the notion of humiliation underlying structural violence contends that one contributing factor is the absence of recognition and respect, which creates divisions between “masters” and “underlings” and feelings of humiliation. As the “underlings” rise to powe